Zhaozhou Bridge(Anji Bridge)

Anji Bridge or Zhaozhou Bridge is a symbol of Shijiazhuang City. Built in Sui Dynasty, designed by the famous architect Li Chun, Anji Bridge is the earliest and the most well-preserved stone arch bridge at present. And because of its historical significance, Anji Bridge was in the list of national important cultural relics.
Zhaozhou Bridge

Design of Anji Bridge

The Anji bridge is about 50 m long with a central span of 37.37 m. It stands 7.3 m tall and has a width of 9 m. The arch covers a circular segment less than half of a semicircle (84°) and with a radius of 27.27 m, has a rise-to-span ratio of approximately 0.197 (7.3 to 37 m). This is considerably smaller than the rise-to-span ratio of 0.5 of a semicircular arch bridge and slightly smaller than the rise-to-span ratio of 0.207 of a quarter circle. The arch length to span ratio is 1.1, less than the arch-to-span ratio of 1.57 of a semicircle arch bridge by 43%, thus the saving in material is about 40%, making the bridge lighter in weight. The elevation of the arch is about 45°, which subjects the abutments of the bridge to downward force and sideways force.
Zhaozhou Bridge2

The central arch is made of 28 thin, curved limestone slabs which are joined with iron dovetails. This allows the arch to adjust to shifts in its supports, and prevents the bridge from collapsing even when a segment of the arch breaks. The bridge has two small side arches on either side of the main arch. These side arches serve two important functions: First, they reduce the total weight of the bridge by about 15.3% or approximately 700 tons, which is vital because of the low rise-to-span ratio and the large forces on the abutments it creates. Second, when the bridge is submerged during a flood, they allow water to pass through, thereby reducing the forces on the structure of the bridge.

Li Chun’s innovative spandrel-arch construction, while economising in materials, was also of considerable aesthetic merit. An inscription left on the bridge by Tang Dynasty officials seventy years after its construction reads:

Legends of Anji Bridge
Zhaozhou Bridge1

There are many beautiful legends about the construction of Anji Bridge. In the past, the Xiaohe River overflowed, and the local people could only ferry across by boat. Lu Ban, the master carpenter, turned the sheep into stones over-night to make the bridge. Zhang Guolao and Chai Wangye, two immortals, came to test the solidity of the bridge. Zhang Guolao rode on the donkey-back, facing backward. In his long bag were the sun and the moon. Chai Wangye pusheda one-wheeled cart, on which were the five famous mountains in China. When they came to the middle of the bridge, it began to shake and was likely to fell down. Seeing the situation was unfavorable, Lu Ban jumped into the water, and held up the bridge with his hands. Luckily, the bridge was safe and sound. So there left on the surface of the bridge clear hoof prints of the donkey and a rut. Lu Ban’s fingerprints were also left on the arch of the bridge. Just like what was sung in the folk song ” Child Cowherd “, ” Anji Bridge was built by Lu Ban, and the boulder railings were left by sages. Zhang Guolao passed the bridge on the donkey-back, and Chai Wangye made a rut by pushing the cart on the bridge. “

Antonioni gave the film a kind of spiritual heritage

Antonioni gave the film a kind of spiritual heritage
Newspapers published the day before yesterday Sweden movie news of shuaibogeman death, today’s newspaper, obituary printed with Antonioni has died, the first feeling is that we are looking in the wrong. However, the report confirmed this in black and white is not your eyes errors. In Jia Zhangke’s words: this is a time to say farewell. In fact, farewell and welcome are happening all the time, none of the nature of the times, focuses on only one of them, or else the world there would be no metabolism. Why Mao Zedong said: the triumph of the dialectic of death is worth celebrating.

Antonioni departed, leaving behind a rich spiritual heritage. But there is one, may be left to the Chinese people. This is Antonioni, in China’s “cultural revolution” during filmed a documentary called China. For the film, the Chinese media has given the most severe lashing and think this movie is to vilify China.

Today we view Antonioni this Department China, will calm have more, but film in the of image still makes we was a said not out of ugly: Tiananmen Square Shang bored waiting for pictures of girl and soldiers, and alley in like ape like walking of Lady, and big truck Shang fighting vehicle of men and woman……, we cannot denied this not Chinese, because from clothing of appearance and looks Shang see, these people does is Shang century 70 generation of Chinese. But the Chinese, what we feel are lacking.

I think this is the alienation effect of the camera lead to making the images on the screen are only extracted from the specific reality and background, will give a strong visual depart. Seemingly honest cameras, in fact, in the presence of subjective intent, will produce a strong subjective bias. In the documentary Fahrenheit 9?11, Bush under the film clips, when 9, 11 occurred, he leisurely busy indeed with the kids show. If the lens in another context, you can express the character’s populist style, but in the specific context of 9, 11, they formed a strong opposition and conflict with the environment.

In China, we just see a foreign Director was full of fresh adventures on China’s real-wait-and-see, but his emotional touches to kind of wait-and-see. For example, in this documentary, we see people wearing a wrinkled yellow uniforms, gave a tedious visual impression, and that’s a picture of the same scene, Chinese Director Jiang Wen’s shot, but can bring a special beauty. Of the sunny days of the hero is the first scene in war for his father off at the airport, a group of camera, that wilderness wafted on the breeze, green uniform pants at an elevation shots, with a sense of the flow of life and vitality. Obviously, same set of scenarios, under different directors, would have a different meaning and charm. As once-popular TV series during the period before the bright sword, army clothes spent a considerable time in the old, but has been particularly vigorous beauty. While the Japanese Deluxe upright, brings the Visual disgust. Visible, true picture of beauty is the personality of the characters themselves, is the Creator give characters emotional content.

We should not expect Antonioni horseback trip in China will be able to come into contact with Chinese people true soul, feel the emotions of ordinary Chinese in poverty, but gives us the inspiration is that a work of art only out of the outward manifestation touches the soul of the characters, can discover the real beauty.

By Antonioni took of China thought some China Director shooting of film, basic is on characters take indifference of peep of tendencies, pretensions faithful to records Xia characters of survival situation, but characters in lens in are is insensitive of expression, so we said, Antonioni not only in China has many of mantle inherited who, and also clone with same fun of companion who, this may is Antonioni accident to Shi to China movie of a pen heritage. Now he has left us, but his legacy will affect our understanding of film affects our perception of the reality in China. As we go down Antonioni’s view while watching the Chinese, we will because their camera orientation and recognition of the International Film Festival of thinking, in fact, than these Chinese directors found that China, rather than such directors confirm that Antonioni in the eyes of China.

Antonioni has gone, but Chinese film show China’s efforts have not ended. We believe that the Chinese director capable of showing a live vivid China, rather than follow the arrogance of the masters, masters of inherited prejudices and continued to let a gang of numbness of face, ugly Chinese into “o”, and “Granville (nice)”, and “Jia (NA)” … …

Introduction to world cultural heritage–in Wudang mountain

Introduction to world cultural heritage–in Wudang mountain

Wudang mountain scenic spot is located in the northwestern part of Hubei Province, in the territory of Danjiangkou, a bus in Shandong province. Wudang mountain, also known as Tai Shan, fairy Hill. Located in Danjiangkou city of Hubei Province, Northwest China, back on the vast miles of shennongjia virgin forest, faces the boundless expanse of danjiang reservoir (water source of the Middle route project of China), is issued by the United Nations World Heritage site, is a national key scenic spots, Taoist mountains and the birthplace of Wudang boxing. Peak forest, the elevation of Tianzhu peak elevation of 1612 meters, a 400-kilometer radius. Taoist mountains, is the birthplace of Wudang martial arts. Is the State-level scenic spots in China, within a radius of more than 30 square kilometers there are 72 peaks, peak strange Valley insurance, the scenery is beautiful. Tianzhu peak peak, 1612 meters above sea level, the whole mountain runs about 60 km.
Wudang mountains became known as the mountain paradise, like other famous mountains of the country, depend on its special geographical location and natural advantages. Geographic location of Mount Wudang, longitude 110 ° 56 ‘ 15 〃-111 ° 15 ‘ 23 〃, latitude 32 ° 22 ‘ 30 〃-32 ° 35 ‘ 06 〃. In the hinterland of China. A radius of 800 miles, high risk and deep, Fei Dang fog, tremendous potential if the Dragon sky; witty beauty like herself come down, known as “that unique scenic spot, the best in the mountains”
Introduction to the history
Tati is enshrined in Wudang mountain, the Wudang word derived from the word: “non-Wu but not enough to the mountains. “Wu on the Wudang mountain is one of China’s famous ancient sects.
Wudang mountain is world known as the “mountain” or “road”. Wo Hill where he recorded “the Wudang” comes from the meaning of “non-Wu of shortcomings”, meaning Wudang Chinese Taoist worship of “black innocent Tati” (also known as Emperor) made in San Diego. Therefore, for thousands of years, Wudang Taoism promised land, fairy homes and gained world renown. Dynasty chaoshanjinxiang, reclusive monastic life attracted numerous, according to Zhou Yin Xi, Han Ma Mingsheng, Yin long, Wei, Jin, southern and Northern dynasties Tao Hongjing, Xie Yun, Yao Jian, Sun SI, Lu Tung-pin in the Tang dynasty, five dynasties period of gourds, Hyun Song Shihu road, Yuan Ye Xizhen, Liu Daoming, Zhang Shouqing all this practice.
Reputation in Wudang mountain, also thanks to its away from the bustling noise of the quiet, delicate and exotic scenery. On the peak of 1612 meters above sea level “Tianzhu peak” in the cloud, all earthly troubles goes on foot. Look around, Ling song, 72 peaks nine, and bent down and nodded towards the peaks, like zhongxingpengyue, Yan Ran “million to North Korea.” One poem goes: “72 peaks of azure, 24 water Bell. “The Tianzhu peak in Wudang mountain area, high mountains and deep valleys, streams are vertically and horizontally, into the scene, will be born there want to eliminate.
View of Palace in Wudang mountain, monastery, Pavilion, Pavilion, grand old buildings all over the mountains in a quiet valley, after the Millennium, Mu-storm without erosion, lightning without damage, seems to be no trace of the years, called the human spectacle.
Wudang “Jia Yu hit gold, Ming silk blown bamboo, float on clouds”, all together listening to all the awesome, respect for “music”, “Brahma”.
Wudang martial arts in “Kung Fu” is known, is the Shaolin in honor of important school of Chinese martial arts, known as the “Northern Shaolin, worship South reveres Wudang. “Legend of Taoist practice on the high cliff walk very quickly of Kung Fu, its unsurpassed admiration.
Wudang mountains to secret biochemical orientation and de-mastery of the mind, the magnificent and charming, the wandering of water and quiet, fog free and sad, life is a State of high and wide, in the hinterland of the Central Plains to form a unique cultural landscape, for thousands of years, the Wanderer pleased fans, gods who stay memorable … …

Alert in the spring outbreak of infectious diseases

World Health Organization warns the global 21st century a new infectious diseases will emerge a year on average. Emerging infectious diseases, pathogens, mostly viruses, and the characteristics of the virus is resistant to heat in winter, and are transmitted through the respiratory tract.
Spring, cold climate, many viruses are very active. In the spring of 2003, worldwide outbreak of the 21st century’s first epidemic–SA s (commonly known as “SARS. )。 SA s corona virus through droplets in the air into the susceptible to respiratory tract, causing pneumonia and other symptoms of fever, body aches, dry cough, dyspnea, use of antibiotics is not valid, the main antiviral drug treatment,. Average case fatality rate of the disease 15%. In June 2003 the global basically under control, spring of 2004 there were some sporadic cases.
The spring of 2004, the Asian outbreak of avian flu, in Viet Nam, and Thailand and human infection cases of bird flu occurred, pathogens are mainly virus H5 n 1. Who warns if you later at the Division of human transmission of bird flu virus, its harmfulness 1000 times times more serious than SARS. In addition, the United Kingdom of the mad cow disease, Rift Valley fever in Africa, as well as the United States nearly two years of West Nile fever (mosquitoes), monkey smallpox (Groundhog spread) and other emerging infectious diseases are a threat to China. Thus, new and old infectious diseases should be extra vigilant in the spring attacks. Positive approach is a balanced diet, nutrition and supplements and vegetables, adequate rest, exercise, increase immunity. And pay attention to personal and environmental hygiene and prevention.

Palace of Versailles

Palace of Versailles

Palace of Versailles is located in the southern suburbs of Paris, masterpiece of Baroque-Rococo style. From the date of completion, is the European Court the object of envy and raced to imitate. Summer Palace in St Petersburg in Russia Vienna, Schönbrunn Palace, Potsdam’s Sanssouci Palace and Germany Bavaria hailunximu Lake House following the Palace and gardens of Versailles. Palace’s fame, is unmatched by any other palaces. In 1980 as a European Court building and the Supreme masterpiece of garden art was included in the world cultural and natural heritage list.

From zone 5 to Versailles, the easiest way is to take the RER c line. Must pay attention to is that the same platforms will have different line trains, but no destination tag on the car. Only in the car, when a locomotive on display. So we delayed for half an hour, resulting in front of Versailles to be super long line.

From Versailles Rive Gauche station, without any signage, go with the flow, up to 10 minutes saw Palace. In light rain, is still a long team. And buy tickets and enter the Palace team was different. Temporary ticket more painful. To wait much longer. Before the Raiders said the passport from team entrance. But in fact, team entrance although nothing lined up, but crowded chaos than anywhere else. I have a crowded car during peak domestic bus feeling. And when we finally get time, passes cannot be used in this entry … Fortunately, staff reasonable, still opening put us in. Entering the first map and guide, and follow the guide in the order began visiting the famous Palace. This praise of Versailles, this guide is the only one with Chinese sites.

Palace of Versailles is very, very crowded, almost everywhere are lined up along the crowd slowly move around, stopped and looked at the little chance. Telling the truth is not like here, was too noisy. Visit free tour to enjoy the fun. Looking back now think it’s strange, how so many people that day. Tuesday is not a holiday or weekend. Is full of opulent luxury, splendid frescoes, tapestries, Velvet paintings and crystal chandeliers. Looked at were pretty good, but overwhelming and sentences together, cumbersome dazzle, much rather have eye strain.

1682 14 of the French Court of Louis XIV moved from Paris to Versailles. Nobles are proud of was invited to the Palace rooms at day and night pleasures. Don’t want to rebel seizure of the atmosphere of luxury. Versailles became not only Europe’s largest and most majestic, the most luxurious palaces, France and Europe’s aristocratic Centre, Arts Centre, led the cultural fashion. Heyday, lived in the Palace of Prince Prince of princes and noble women, nobles, bishops and their attendant servants up to 36,000 people. Louis 14 and there are many classes are contemporaries of the Chinese emperor Kangxi. Two men for the young emperor, and create a generation of prosperity. During the reign of Louis XIV 14, Europe is known to be “Louis 14 centuries.”

Queen bedroom, quite a few fengguanxiapei meant. Barrier is already outside, Queen of all the nobility in the fence outside in the morning, by the Queen’s dress, ladies wash, no privacy. France Royal rules now seems quite absurd, like Prince and Princess dining scene are open to the people, it was said that every day a large number of various levels of people rushed into the House and watch them eat. Even more ridiculous is the Queen of children’s scene is open to the public. Louis 15 Queen is said to have babies, the bedroom was filled with people enjoyed watching, so that indoor air dirty, Louis and 15 had to personally push through the crowd to open the Windows for ventilation of the room.

The most famous Hall of mirrors in Versailles, it is garden 17 huge floor to ceiling Windows on one side, the other side is composed of more than more than 400 pieces of mirror the huge mirror. Louis 14 here often held a masked ball, where guests can enjoy the garden through the window from the mirror. Fine carved on the floor in the Office, the walls adorned with lilac and white marble veneer, next to Angel sculptures are bronze gold plated top decoration theme is wings of the Sun, said reverence for Louis XIV, 14. Be 24 great Bohemian crystal chandeliers on the ceiling. With large mirror as interior, is not uncommon today, then it will be an unprecedented originality. When crystal chandeliers lit thousands of candles at night, and maps in a mirror, but dazzling …

There is the famous picture: Napoleon’s Coronation, the Pope first to go to Notre Dame for the coronation of Napoleon, Napoleon Crown Queen of his own groundbreaking artist David drew more than 200 more faces in this picture can identify somebody. Similar paintings at the Louvre site. The difference between the two in only one place, you can see from the pictures found here?

Baroque and Rococo palaces around too long oppressed, the window of the small rain, and to the garden walk. Palace of Versailles is a model of the classical three-section building symmetrical outline neatly. Palace of Versailles some bugs me, but walking in the rain in a garden secluded, is quite comfortable. Due to space limitations, again writing under garden.

Wrote so much, you may also be wondering why I said the palaces of Versailles is also adding a simple attribute, for three reasons. First, the building is the home of Louis Fouquet, 14 to see Finance Minister cardiac jealous and hunting lodge rebuilt as the. At the beginning of its construction after the 21st year, Louis XIV 14 can’t wait to move in, all completed but took a century, only lived three generations of Kings. Because of the pressing time limit, most of the housing in addition to the limited space and the space of the Palace of Versailles, only use quick decorated frescos and wall covering. Is like a Chinese old saying ironically upstart “new tree small wall paint”. Even a glittering, can’t escape the “nouveau riche” shadow. Even compared with the Louvre, still the poor relation. After all it is dozens of law he carefully and slowly in a primary in more than 400 years to create.

Secondly, the huge Palace of Versailles even a toilet and toilet facilities at all. Louis hadn’t bathed in Fourteen-One life, even the Crown Prince had to solve toilet problems inside the fireplace. Curious about those Queens and ladies how to solve the very real problems … Louis XV was extremely sick and its Palace, don’t think it’s too big and warm, slick, country after his family moved to the Tuileries Palace.

Peter and Paul Fortress

Peter and Paul Fortress

Peter and Paul Fortress is located in the Centre of Saint Petersburg, right bank of the Neva River, is the famous ancient architecture of St Petersburg. The Fort on May 16, 1703 by Peter the great in the Coney Island groundbreaking, and Petersburg peers. Petersburg is under protection of the birth and development of the fortress, Peter and Paul Fortress as Russia Sweden outpost created by the war in the North. Peter the great personally for it and an easy defense sites, overseeing construction work. Expansion into several times after.

A hexagonal shape of the fortress, there is a lot of firepower, the loopholes as big as a window to the outside, the entire fortress building impregnable. But since Peter the great in a series of military campaigns that followed were won, making the Fort has never been attacked, and became Russia’s inner city. As a result fortresses changed Russia’s prison, the Fort’s military command into the interrogation room (currently used as a Museum), Russia built the Bastille. Is ironic, which held the first prisoner was the only son of Peter alikexie, on charges he fled over, toward the throne. Peter son in custody, and personally tried, and finally, the secret to death.
In addition to the Peter and Paul Fortress held Peter’s son, also held the Petrels, author of Gorky and Ostrovsky, Czerny Fyodor Dostoyevsky and many other Russia writer. On the eve of the revolution, of course, still held Lenin’s brother.
However, this castle when we visit, but do not feel the Majesty of the fortress, feel to the prison of the dark, just find yourself walking in a park and scenery is beautiful, people are beautiful, and King formed a picture of a beautiful painting!

Fortress in the St Peter and Paul Cathedral, Bell Tower, St Peter, Peter boat House, mint, and arsenal, kelongweierke cupolas, the December revolution monument, and other buildings.

Among them, the most famous is the St Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Cathedral was built in 1703, was originally made of wood, 1712-1733 where they are turned into a stone Cathedral. Is an early Russia Baroque Cathedral. Church looks solemn, decorated splendidly, copper-plated chandeliers and colored crystal chandelier. Inner wall of the Church is decorated with 43 jingdiaoxilou wood statues. Church from Peter the great to the Russian tsars Alexander III’s Tomb, many large public funeral here, stands the marble gravestone. On July 17, 1998, the remains of the last Tsar Nicholas II and his family are also buried here.

122 meters high Bell Tower of the Cathedral, by mid-century, is the tallest building in the city. 3.2 meters high Angel statue on the Tower Spire, statue of wings extend 3.8 m, 6.4 meters high statue head cross. Glittering spire of the tower into the sky, the landscape is very charming.

This is the punishment of solitary confinement.

This is the hostel.

This statue is a bit abstract, is by the 1:1 into the Peter the great statue, apparently, his hands and feet are long, but always to look to visitors.

Goddess of the Stockholm

Goddess of the Stockholm
Sweden’s capital Stockholm is a very special city, there are many interesting places in the city. Its two main streets, were built on the site of the ancient city walls, the main means of transport in the city, is the underground railroad, also known as the “world’s longest underground art gallery.” Stockholm is also a famous and colorful “underground world”. Shops, factories, warehouses, car parks, markets, power plants, arsenals, hospitals and so on, are built on the ground. Traffic congestion don’t see metropolis on the ground, “the noisy bustle of feature. Also, the sitegeermo the whole city, all buildings in a number of big and small islands. 70 bridges between islands to string together to form a complete city. Waterway criss-crossing the city, water transportation is very convenient, known as the Venice of the North. Looking down from a great height, Stockholm like floating in the blue shimmering pearl, brilliant, shining.
The climate in Stockholm is very special, and the summer days are long and at night is very short. In the winter, during the very short, is a long, long evening, especially to the annual December 13, in Stockholm the night the longest day, that day into the city since ancient times and some festivals–Lucia Festival.
Lucia is the heart of Stockholm’s most sacred goddess, she is in the darkest time came to this city. In the winter, Stockholm, only for a few hours during the day, often eaten after lunch, the sky began to darken, and in the evening, people not only do not work, still have to alert all kinds of attacks. Because of the cover of night, bandits wicked Braves wǎng wǎng been out, outside the city to misbehave, Hornets. Even more frightening is, day and time is getting shorter, the night the time is getting longer and longer, continues, would it not be dark? As the helpless, people had no choice but to pray for God’s protection and grace, o God darkness, back to their day. May is they of pious moved has God, may is God moving has mercy of heart, Pat see they again by suffering, soon Hou, is December 13 this days night, suddenly has a female Angel comes to this city, she head Shang wearing with beautiful of corolla, wear a white white of clothes, she each to a place, with she of white clothes gently a brushed, a that place is a light. Overjoyed, euphoric, they follow the goddess Lucia trouble around every corner of the city, the darkness is dispelled, bright was born. From that day onwards, Stockholm’s long day by day by day, at night is getting shorter. People really appreciate Russian goddess feat. They have every December 13Day as Lucia Festival. The Festival became people’s biggest and noisiest Festival in Stockholm. At the beginning of, people in the family to celebrate Lucia Festival, every family dressed up as Russian youngest girl. Was dragged to the ground by she put on a white dress, wore a beautiful corolla, Corolla is equipped with 7 lighted candles and bright. Then let the glamorous Russian stood in the middle of housing, house full of candles, is filled with holiday good food on the table, everyone around the Russian and sing and dance. Later, the Festival moved to the community. People in the many beautiful girls in public elected luxitu girl, in this day of the Festival, so she stands in beautifully decorated convertible tram. , In front of big band way back is singing and dancing crowd. Walk slowly along the brightly lit streets. People crowded into the streets on either side, to watch, keep Lucia waved the goddess. Stockholm, December 13 is the longest night of the day, since the emergence of Russian goddess, Stockholm is a city that never sleeps.

A pure land – Hagia Sophia Church

A pure land – Hagia Sophia Church
In Fourteenth Century, there were two powerful countries on the continent of Europe, one is the Byzantine Empire, one is the Turkey empire. In order to expand their forces, they conquered many small countries, and finally they began to compete. Just then, a Byzantine Empire occurred in the Turkey army to let, through the Dardanelles, into the balkans. Less than half the time the Byzantine Empire only Constantinople and around the small area. At the critical moment of national survival, the feudal owners still only for their great byzantine. Some even openly surrendered. But the people of Constantinople unwilling to be enslaved, as a desperate struggle against the enemy.
The Turkey army away from the local, supply, and siege and no progress, Sultan Mohamed S a headache, there is no way to what. After a few days, and there is a problem, how can’t he bend the brows, anxious.
Over the past few days, the fight is still no progress, but lost a lot of soldiers.
At this time, suddenly there was a soldier for.
“The emperor long live, I came to see you about siege.”
“What, you have a way to it?” Sultan Mohamed S looked at him half believe and half doubt.
“I thought of a way, I wonder if you would like to try.”
Listen to the soldier said siege tactics, Sultan Mohamed II music.
Then, the Turkey army has organized a new siege, but this time with a few times before, they in the brigade soldiers before the soldier led by a group of carrying many beekeepers bee box.
The troops quickly arrived at Constantinople, the beekeepers immediately put into the hive city. Appoint time into dry tens of thousands of bees from the hive broke open the overwhelming flying out, met people sting, the defenders and the sting of blinded, a Wah, a mess, suddenly lost the ability to defend the war. The Turkey army stormed two hours done in one vigorous effort, after fully occupied Constantinople, so far, has a history of one thousand years of the end of the Byzantine empire.
In order to report siege to the shooting of three ordered the emperor of Turkey, the people in the city of death countless treasures, wanton robbery did not move is the only Hagia Sophia Church, perhaps the magnificent building conquered every soldier, perhaps they will find spiritual sustenance. The Turkey city was renamed Istanbul, the churches converted to Islam mosque.
Now most of the buildings should be in sixth Century, the construction of the era of emperor charles. It lasted more than 7 years, the cost of a huge, it represents the peak of the East Rome imperial architectural art. Now let’s take a look at the world building’s treasures.
The front of the church is a gorgeous courtyard, surrounded by colonnades surrounding the central pool. Through the door to the triple front porch, followed by the grand porch, it is 61 meters long, 9.1 meters wide, divided into two layers, the lower for Protestants and regret to use, the upper part of the church porch. The median plane combination is square, length of 32.6 meters, 183 meters long, 7.6 meters wide stone pillars erected arch. Supported on lap 4.5, to support the large dome. The large dome is 15 meters high, 32.6 meters in diameter. It is said to be able to see it in the Caspian Sea. Beside of 2.5 dome, the nave is oval. The first section of China’s construction in a hurry, the dome once collapsed, repair increases buttress. But later generations can still learn from it, its structure and the structure of the craftsmen to the structure of the analysis ability has reached a fairly high level.
In fact, the most striking, or its internal structure. The church interior space is quite grand, both unified and full of changes, the size of half dome complex changes. Especially the central circle up obvious fulcrum, and composed of 40 of the lower dome opened 40 windows, so when people in the dark in the hall, the slanting rays of the sun shone through the window in the hall, the eyes will be a black and white pattern, make people have a wonderful feeling of floating in the air in general. No wonder that the famous historian Pu Luokaibi, said: “if the sky is suspended by chains.”
The most distinctive feature of the building is the use of color. The dome was built of brick, and it was covered with gray lead. Inside the wall everywhere with the color of the marble, the marble from Rome, Athens, Epher and shipped, white, green, blue, black, red and other colors. The column is mostly green, the stigma is colored gold inlay, ground color gravel patterns, vault and dome is for glass wool and gold inlaid stone, the angels and saints. The whole hall was dazzling, extraordinary, make every saints feel mysterious religion. While the outside wall mortar, bands as black and white, like a stone and brick mixed together, so that the shape is simple and elegant.
To see this magnificent building, it is no wonder that Justinian entered the church could not help shouting: “thank God, I choose to accomplish the grand cause of! Solomon, I’m more than you!”
Later, Turkey built 4 minarets, in some decoration, its name was changed to Aya Sophia, meaning “holy wisdom”. Until 1935 here to the military museum name reverted to “sophia”.

Altamira cave paintings-a five year old girl found

In 1870, Spain scholar Shao Torah on the hole site discovered Paleolithic layers, to play with his 5 year old girl Maria came across the caves frescoes. Shaoxing Torah study as the Paleolithic paintings, but denied by the academia, 20 years later, was able to admit that. Altamira Cave was first discovered the Paleolithic mural locations are typical representatives of this mural art. Hole in the main draw are animals such as bison, deer, there are figures and geometries. Drawing styles can be divided into 5 periods that are associated with each other. Early fingers side-by-side in the wet traces of wall painting, later was holes in the period known as “draw” on top of the hole, several paint to draw a animal images, each image is about 2 meters, leaping Stags, the death throes of the bison, realism, full of life, full of vitality. Skills and realistic, and accurate perspective, structure of subtlety, style is simple, straightforward, and is the highest achievement of Paleolithic art. When cave painting found in stone lamps for lighting. Altamira Cave from the Paleolithic era inhabited the aurignacian period starts in late, sparse rutte later culture due to the holes gradually collapsed, people no longer lived and devoted to religion or witchcraft ritual place. Therefore, the entrance of residential deposits only up to the solutrean culture, cave murals have remains of the Magdalenian culture.
Altamira cave paintings of bison
More than 10,000 years ago, ancient people were painted so lifelike animals on the stones, and the picture still remains with bright colors, it’s incredible.
From Spain, capital of the autonomous region of Cantabria in Santander based on less than half an hour’s drive you can reach Altamira. Altamira Cave is located more than 10 km from the Cantabrian coast in a mountain high ground. Drizzle the other day, opening heights full of green. Here the winter cold and summer heat and abundant rain. Mild climate, abundant rainfall raised the mountain green.
Altamira Cave more than 270 meters long, with a size of 11 caves. About 1. 80,000 to 1. 50,000 years ago, a far the ancients live here, left in the cave wall of a lot of animals of painting. In order to protect rock paintings in caves, Altamira has stopped is open to the public. In order to allow people to continue to enjoy the art treasures of prehistoric humans, built a new Museum near the original cave caves, on rock paintings in Altamira up, saving the best copy of the 2nd hole.
In about seventy or eighty square holes on top, covered with paintings of animals – Buffalo, wild horses, wild goats, and deer, and some ancient hand-shape and some have failed to decipher the symbols. Most of these paintings as colored, main color is reddish and black, there are also hints of yellow and purple, colorful, animal life. A Standing Buffalo, proportion, muscle fullness, tail cocked up like swing, wild look on his face. A wild horse, smooth lines, the body is tall, strong and vigorous.
Carefully draw edges have lines of nicks, nicks is the black line. It keeps people guessing, owner of this cave is the first million years ago with a hard, sharp-edged stone tools carved in the rock contours of the animal, and then with black edges, and red and black pigment. According to research, Cave of the master of paint from natural minerals, bright colors long faded. Ingenious use of roof rock lot rugged natural painting, reveals the animal’s natural qualities. Some painting inscribed with lines, no color is probably not finished work. Rock paintings in the roof there are more than 30 paintings, style is basically the same. Experts speculate that these works are likely to come from one or more masters of painting. Due to this cave rock paintings are drawn on top of the big hole, gave it a “big cave” name. Colorful due to the hole on top of the rock paintings, people referred to it as “colourful caves”.
The discovery of Paleolithic cave art of Europe, mainly in France in southwestern Spain Frank – Cantabria in northern regions. The cliff paintings in the cave, with its grand scale and magnificent courage, Madlyn Paleolithic culture the most representative works of the period.
1879 in Spain found in Altamira (Altamira) Cave, is a Paleolithic cave paintings, the most famous one.
Famous cave paintings, are from the left of the entrance and another one in, is inconsistent. When it was first found, the roof from the ground is very low, in order to facilitate the visit, dig down deep, and now is no more than about three meters high square cave, cave there is a bump at the end of the rock face, is digging deep when to stay, the rock was covered with a canvas, for the enjoyment of visitors lay on his back cave paintings. Its location opposite the cave painting that wonderful images of bison.
Cave painting as contour lines and some very deep, shallow, thin, and outlined with black and red fill color, thick black lines, red fill color is thick, also slight shading. Make full use of the rock surface of the works to show the ups and downs of the muscles and bones of the animals, when you lay the animal’s torso, cleverly exploited the high spot of the rock, constitutes muscle round shapes, coupled with the four-leg curl, the vivid images of the famous the wounded bison is produced. This work up to 2 m, it depicts the buffaloes huddled after the injury, struggling, accurate performance of the animal’s structure and dynamic. RASCO cave are different, Altamira mural profile slender and light to enter change of weight bias, and color rendering are linked closely together, through the dynamic structure of the animal body, fluctuations of light and shade are richer, even feelings are more delicate, but than the Lascaux cave paintings as bold and powerful.

Shanhaiguan — the best in all the land.

Shanhaiguan, the eastern end of the Great Wall China first, history, around it, there have been many major historical events. Now is the time of peace, daoqiangjianji cold weapons has quit the stage of history. The new era of the the Great Wall in Shanhaiguan, has been included in the world cultural heritage, has become for us to visit the places of historic interest and scenic beauty.
In the Ming Dynasty, the Great Wall, from Beijing Badaling to Shanhaiguan is integrally, (from the Beijing Badaling West to Jiayuguan in Gansu are connected into a whole, after failing to meet the conclusive writing record, is not arrogantly. The early Ming Emperor Period (1368 -), due to the resist to retreat in the desert grassland to the Beiyuan forces counterattack, army general Xuda was ordered to repair the Great Wall, in rammed earth and brick package Leiqi Great Wall stretches for thousands of miles, extremely rugged, plays an important role in defending the country; to the Wanli period (AD 1573 -), is the needs of national defense, Qi, a national hero and in West Yong Tong Beijing Badaling, the east to Shanhaiguan Great Wall on the upgrading of 1017 tower, enhance the defensive function of the Great Wall, the above is Shanhaiguan Great Wall of the background, to find out is very necessary, but also very interesting.
Now the Shanhaiguan Great Wall scenic spot, should include adjacent old leader, the first pass under heaven, of nine gates, angle mountain different section of the Great Wall in general. This is not connected, paragraphs after repair, some attractions.
Old leading scenic area is not large, about 700 acres, by the sea Shicheng, Jing halogen Taiwan, Ning Haicheng, Chenghai floor, off the mouth of the South China Sea, sea temple and connection of these buildings coastal great wall composition. Jing halogen Taiwan is the easternmost of the Great Wall towers, built directly on the sea Shicheng, its body is affected by the Bohai ntao day scouring, bears the sea guard duty; Chenghai building is the old leading the Great Wall vantage point, the Kangxi years of the Qing Dynasty rebuilt, because at the time of the ruling group is the Manchu people, their home is northeast Liaoning, Jilin area, and the Mongolia ethnic relations processing is relatively good, so, the the Great Wall will lose the role of defense, specific to Chenghai building the perfect place, also became the Qing Dynasty tours of the sea, the Qing Dynasty Kangxi, Yong Zheng, Qian Long, Jia Qing, Daoguang emperor here; Ning Haicheng yes, the old guard stationed leading soldiers living in the Ming Dynasty, is a closed Town, only the south side is directly connected with the sea Shicheng, to the sea is open, Zhou Changgu Meter is a few hundred meters, now inside reconstruction have administration, Department of garrison, Long Wu, bouleuterion, purlin, building, in order to let visitors know during the Ming Dynasty soldier training and living conditions, now the city also has a temple, to commemorate the Ming Dynasty with mountain and sea off the construction of the great wall, guard the patriotic general, Xuda, Qi, yuan Chonghuan, Xiong Tingbi, sun Chengzong, Ge Shouli, Zhu Mei seven star.
“Jing halogen units” name implies: brine and seawater; “halogen” and homophonic “prisoner of war” and “Jing halogen” can directs the sea was calm and pacify the enemy prisoner, pun.
The Great Wall in the old leading the construction of the Eight Allied forces invaded China and the war of resistance has been severely damaged, the old leading scenic spot is rebuilt in 1980s.
The best in all the land in the old faucet off area 4 kilometers north, is an ancient city, is now part of Shanhaiguan city. Shanhaiguan area, lie in the south of the sea and the North Yanshan between a piece of ground, for thousands of years has been human in this life, multiply, until the Ming Dynasty, because of the sharp opposition to the minority regime in the Ming Dynasty Han regime, and the northeast, making the military to a unprecedented important, through making great efforts to construct Ming Xu, sun Chengzong, Chi Chi and other generals, a powerful defense pass defense system formed, because it is in between the mountain and the sea, so “Shanhaiguan” is the natural form.
From the geographical location, Shanhaiguan is bridge, the first pass of the Great Wall, the eastern.; from the geographical situation, Shanhaiguan mountains and the sea, only 7.5 kilometers of distance between the mountain and the sea, in the distance, a tall and sturdy great wall cut off the plains thoroughfare, middle is Shanhai Guan city relations, Guan City also dig moat to defend, can be said to be impregnable pass lock AI, easily defensible. So, when the Shanhaiguan was called “the best in all the land.”.
Shanhaiguan city relations, is one of the Acropolis in the Ming Dynasty, was a square, about 4.6 kilometers of circumference, high walls 14 meters, 7 meters thick. It can be counterparts of ten, five horses and ride, the volume of giant amazing. Tower mostly destroyed in the war, wall part keeps down, now local in the overhaul of the walls has been basically around the, the tower has been basically completed the and a half new mountain Guan Guan town appears in front of the world.
Walls in the middle of the thing north and South are built a watchtower, especially to the east gate of the watchtower, because its face the enemy, than the other three doors are more tall, Dongmen watchtower, built in the high walls, 13 meters high, divided into two layers, the north, East and south face of wall full of arrows windows, “world first” of the plaque hanging in the east gate of the watchtower of the upper median, words by the Ming Dynasty toward the mountains close to write Xiao Xian, font 1.5 meters square, are in italics, vigorous, vigorous, and style tower seamless. Dongmen Jianlou South and southeast corner of the city of Shanhaiguan, built a L-shaped Jingbian floor. During the Ming Dynasty as well as defence function, 1933 was to blow up the Japanese aggressors, the construction is in 1986 by the Ming Dynasty style reconstruction. A provisional Chonglu floor, Weiyuan hall built in the watchtower in the north side of the east gate, east gate the watchtower and Jingbian floor in the middle have muying Pavilion. During the Ming Dynasty are also defensive buildings, buildings are the 1980s reconstruction. The fifth floor forming potential of the “Fab five town, embodies the important strategic position and the majestic momentum. The South Gate of the watchtower, the name “Guia floor”, due to climb to the top of the building, the south is expected to see the sea named, was built towards the Mingjia Jing, 1933 was to blow up the Japanese aggressors, 2004 began rehabilitation, now the building has been built, but things connected to the walls are built in, the impact of the ornamental effect.
Shanhaiguan Guan City, where soldiers and residents living, flat streets, houses peremptory, ancient buildings left not much, in the middle of something to the north, South, and to the intersection of the two thoroughfare Road, the intersection is off the city center, the bell and Drum Tower and Wenchang palace.
The city also built a closed complex part of our soldiers of Shanhaiguan in Ming Dynasty, built in the square on the north side of the site the best in all the land. Because of Shanhaiguan’s military value is extremely important, Shanhaiguan branch is the only agency of the Department of the Ming dynasty. Shanhaiguan soldiers Department founded in Xuande years, the highest executive referred to as principal, announced that Dezhao to Ming death, altogether has 90 principal in the life, work, and bear responsibility for the defense of the task, now here a rehabilitation instrument door, purlin, bedroom, study, trying to show, a restoration of their life, office.
Guan City now hold the architectural style of the Ming and Qing Dynasties — “Wang Grand Courtyard” and Shanhaiguan Folk Museum, is a four sets of homes are combined into a courtyard style buildings and reflects the Shanhaiguan local living, customs, accommodation and living habits, and is said to be Chen Yuanyuan sitting room, Wang Grand Courtyard, or very appreciate the value of.
Guan City, the construction of the Great Mercy Hospital temples, new buildings, now Chinese people atheistic thinkers probably accounted for the vast majority, enlightenment thoughts do not know to what role, let people understand Buddhism knowledge, some money incense poured is likely.